Azerbaijan - Turkey deep historical national roots and geopolitical factors of their strong economic relations are not a secret at all. Historical factors in the development of bilateral relations between the two fraternal countries, political and ideological factors, national identity, solidarity, common Turkish cultural and spiritual heritage, language, religion, culture, morality, unity has always been of great importance. Conservation and propagation of common values of Turkish people in the modern political and cultural institutions and scientific centers of activity programs, including "The Summits of Heads of Turkic States"s TURKSOY, "The Turkic states and communities for friendship, brotherhood and cooperation congresses" and Ataturk Center in Azerbaijan is of an important progressive value that acts in this direction.
As is known, socio-economic, cultural and moral values and national-historical development, has very serious and important implications. In this context, the close multilateral relationships with Turkey play an important role in the national, cultural, social and economic development.
Relations of Policy and Economy
History of political and economic relations between Azerbaijan and Turkey, though is set over their joint and common, national and spiritual factors, but in general, was not limited to the national fanaticism. According to international rules, the foreign policy, and economic activities are based not only national factors, but established by reference to the balance of interests of the parties. At the same time, the research of the correlation between political and economic activities of the state and its citizens’ national identification becomes vitally crucial.
Common Values of two Countries
The people’s origin, the roots, the historical experience of foreign relations, their relationships established with the state, their development, progress have a significant impact on the development in one or another way. In many cases, international relations, the national interstate proximity of social and economic relations, the factor of ethnic identity plays an important role as well. It is no secret, that language, origin, religion in very close similar peoples, communities, and ethnos, economic thinking are similar, and also in terms of thinking they are rather common, and manifest similar features. This is the complete cause of economic interests of national interests. Sometimes it happens, that national interest becomes the must condition in international relations (1, pp. 35-17).
Although national identity is not the only condition for the development of interstate relations, but it can be considered as one of the most important factors. This is, in particular, Azerbaijan - Turkey cultural and economic relations are clearly visible. In Soviet times, all aspects in Azerbaijan - Turkey social, economic and national-cultural relations were distorted. In the dangerous situation of losing national independence, Azerbaijan asked for help the Turks of Turkey, and their assistance of "Islamic army" consisting of the Ottoman army and Azerbaijani volunteers was regarded dishonestly to be occupation (2, p. 25).
In contrast, the theme was studied in impartial and accurate way by intellectuals in exile, and presented in valuable works. For this reason, during the Soviet period those articles and books by M.E. Rasulzade, M.B. Mammedzade, H. Baykara, B. Qaraja as holders of ideology on the Turkish-Azerbaijani relations, were in secret being re-written by hand , were copied and passed from hand to hand by the patriotic people to be read with admire (2, pp. 26-27).
The researcher has analyzed the historic place of the newly formed Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the system of international relations 95 years ago M. Abdullayev writes in this regard that, in 1918, on May 28, the National Council of Azerbaijan adopted a Declaration of Independence, and June 16, the National Council and the provisional Government moved to Ganja. On June 24, the Azerbaijani delegation headed by M.A. Rasulzade went to Istanbul. At that time, the main objective of the delegation of the Union of Four countries and the Caucasus representatives of the newly formed states to attend the conference and to discuss a range of issues with the Ottoman government (3, pp. 149-150).
In Istanbul, the Azerbaijan delegation held important meetings where they presented the Declaration of Independence to the representatives of these countries. The severer the war situation was becoming for the Union of Four countries, the less was the possibility for the Istanbul Conference to take place. However, delegation meetings were very useful. Taking into account the request of the delegation of the Ottoman government decided to lend the amount of 2 million Turk liras for ten years. Printing of Azerbaijan money started in Istanbul as well. Taking into account the wishes of the Azerbaijan delegation, the Ottoman government, agreed to send books and teachers to Azerbaijan (4, p. 65).
At the beginning of century Turkey's socio-political and cultural life and the progressive movement had a big effect on Azerbaijani intellectuals. At the same time, not only Turkish troops in 1918 came to Baku, but also Turkish poets. For example, "Azerbaijan" newspaper on October 24, by Ahmad Javad, informed of Turkish poet and journalist Rovshan Ashrafbey coming to Baku. Shortly after the establishment of an Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Ibrahim Shakir, Arif Uryan and other Turkic poets arrived to Baku were chanting enthusiastically patriotic feelings and the struggle for freedom of the Azerbaijani people (5, pp. 6-8).
In 1920, the Turkish Grand National Assembly on July 19, the delegation headed by Bekir Sami Bey, Commissar of Foreign Affairs , visited Moscow . The main purpose of the visit was to negotiate and sign a friendship agreement between the two countries. As a result of negotiations in July and August, 1920, the draft of the Soviet- Turkish agreement was agreed on August, 24. Russia - Turkey negotiations based on mutual agreement were to be held in Baku. G. Chicherin handed a note to the Government of Turkey on 9th, December, 1920, and stated that Azerbaijan, and Armenian delegation will take part in it. He called it a four- state conference. December 19, 1920, G. Chicherin sent a note to the Acting Commissioner of Foreign Affairs of the People's Parliament Ahmed Mukhtar and stated that it was absolutely unacceptable to separate responsible foreign policy leaders from their jobs, and offered that the negotiations would take place not in Baku but in Moscow, brought to the attention of the Turkish counterparties that a permanent connection would be created through Armenia and Novorossiysk for the Turkish delegation (6, pp.48 - 51).
Russian diplomacy specific objectives at this conference were to bring Azerbaijan and Armenia. However, the intention was to take full control over the foreign policy of both the soviet republics and to aim them against Turkey. At the same time, Russia has tried to pave the way for future spending intentions of Southern Caucasus.
When the Turks went to negotiate with Russia in Moscow in February 1921, they couldn’t sign a treaty with Azerbaijan, Georgia and later with Armenia. The draft agreement with Azerbaijan comprising 7 Articles was prepared by Turks. According to the draft, they should join their forces after freeing of the East and aim them against imperialism. If Turkey would sign the agreement with the Entente, it was to send the rebel groups to Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan had to undertake the financing of Emissaries; Azerbaijan the national- liberation movement in the its East; but if inhabitants want, only at the time the Soviet Power could be established. Azerbaijan could not enter the agreement with the Entente without consent of Turkey. If the Entente attacked, Turkey was to provide assistance to Azerbaijan. When Turkey would be involved into the revolutionary operations in the East, Azerbaijan should supply them with oil and oil products (4, p. 137).
However, the talks failed in Baku. As a result of negotiations, that began on February 26, the treaty "On Friendship and Brotherhood "between the RSFSR - Turkish was signed on March, the 16th, 1921, consisting of 16 items, and 2 annexes. It was signed on behalf of Russia by G. Chicherin and Jamal Gorkhmazov. Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR ratified it on 20th, July, 1921, Azerbaijan Parliament ratified the treaty on July, the 31st of the same year, and the ratification documents were exchanged on September, the 22nd, in Kars. There was of great importance to the signing of the treaty. First of all, the treaty eliminated disputes between the two countries. Secondly, the treaty signed by Turkey and the Russian Bolsheviks made close alliance against their enemies from the Entente countries. With abolishment of Turkish occupation regime, Russia put an end to non-admission of the new Bolshevik regime and turned into an ally. Thirdly, the treaty partially, maintained the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan and clarified the issue of territorial identity of Nakhchivan (7, p. 132).
The general condition in diplomatic and political relations between Ankara and Baku was characterized by mutual understanding, support, friendship and brotherhood. In1921, Turkey's ambassador to Baku was Mr. Mamdouh Shovket bey. There was a mutual understanding between him and the Bolshevik government. In April 1921, Mr. Mamdouh Shovket bey applied to the Commissariat of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan. The appeal was requesting to help to Turkey the economy and the oil industry. The ECPC responded positively to this request with great enthusiasm. Oil products were soon sent to Turkey (4, p.138).
Azerbaijan created conditions for the return of the Turkish merchants to their motherland. They were provided with food and carriage. Discussing mutual Azerbaijan-Turkish relations, there was an issue of discussion as to creation the Turkish diplomatic mission. Though Turkish diplomacy in Ankara requested the opening of the Azerbaijan representation, but Bolshevik Baku delayed the problem salvation (7, p. 156).
ECPC presented the candidacy of Deputy People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of Azerbaijan to work in Turkey I. Abilov to the Russian ECPC. G. Chicherin sent a telegram M. Huseynov on May, the 26th, 1921, and agreed "On candidacy of Abilov to be submitted to Turkey ". I. Abilov was appointed as Plenipotentiary Ambassador by Ankara government in June, 1921 (7, p.158).
In August of 1921, in Ankara, the representation was as follows: the Plenipotentiary representative, the first secretary, second secretary, business manager, assistant manager, accountant, diplomatic courier, clerk, typist, doctors and others. The composition of the representation must have been 50-60 people. However, in 1921, according to information dated August 4, there were 28, in the fall of 1922 - 54 employees. Until the end of 1921, representation was located in the hotel (4, p.136).
On October, the 22nd, 1921 I. Abilov presented his credentials to Mustafa Kemal Pasha. The Azerbaijan Soviet flag was erected on the top of the representation office building on November, the 15th. Mustafa Kemal Pasha took part at the party on this occasion. One of the issues of Azerbaijan - Turkish relations discussed was to prohibit activities of Musavat leaders and organizations that were forced to emigrate after the invasion in April. Azerbaijan Bolsheviks considered them in exile to be a source of danger. That’s why as a condition for bilateral relations was the demand from Azerbaijan party to prohibit their activities or to expel them from Turkey (4, p.139).
Bolshevik government of Azerbaijan has raised the issue of the prohibition Musavat party and its organizations in Turkey; the Azerbaijan Bolshevik government orchestrated from Moscow with their own actions demonstrated that they didn’t need any independence, more than that they expelled people who were fighting for it, and considered them to be a danger source; their elimination was the highest level issue in the mutual Azerbaijan - Turkey relations, the Turkish side facing difficult international conditions, had to make some concessions of those requirements; to rescue from Bolshevik terror and the threat of deportation from Turkey Musavat party members were forced to accept Turkish citizenship; however, they didn’t give up their struggle against occupation but continued it in its various forms. Kars conference took an important place in Azerbaijan - Turkish relations (8, p.33).
On the eve of the Conference Russian diplomacy forced South Caucasian republics to conclude corporate treaty with Turkey. Bolshevik government tried to put this case into life with these republics themselves. The Conference was held from September, 26th to October, 13th, 1921. At the Conference Azerbaijani government was presented by Behbud Shahtakhtinsky, the Armenian government -by Askanaz Mravyan, Poqos Makinisyan; Georgian government -by Shalva Eliva, Alexander Svanidze, the Turkish government -by Kazim Karabekir Pasha, MP Veli Bey, the former social affairs minister Mukhtar Bey, the authorized representative of Turkey Mehmud Shovket Bey, and as a mediator in Russia was Latvian authorized representative Yakov Ganetski. In the welcoming fiery speech made by Kazim Karabekir Pasha wished success to the work of Conference. Speaking at the opening Ganetski expressed the hope that Turkey being in difficult situation would find its way out, and spoke on the friendship of Azerbaijan - Georgia - Armenia and about Turkish - Greek relations (4, p. 140).
At the opening ceremony A. Mravyan spoke on behalf of the Republic of Armenia and three South Caucasian republics. He significant singled out, that "brotherly Turkish people come to winning the fight against imperialism and violation, and that was a wish of peoples of the South Caucasus, that wishes would become strengthened". One of the issues of argument was whether to sign a corporate or separately with each of the countries treaty. In this respect, it was a clash of positions of Turkey, Russia and the South Caucasus republics. Proposal of Turkish diplomacy was to conclude a separate agreement with the every of republics. Kazim Karabekir Pasha based the position of Turkish diplomacy by following evidences: "The Soviet government in Moscow has recognized independent South Caucasian republics. Therefore, we want to conclude a separate treaty with each of them as independent states. Kemal Pasha has instructed us about it" (9, p. 304).
This position of Turkish diplomacy was not accepted by the Russian diplomacy. Russia offered a corporate treaty with three republics. This position sparked controversy. Karabekir Kazim Pasha said that he needed consultations with his Government. After contacts with the Ankara government, clear position was stated to Conference participants: "The treaty must be conclude with each of the South Caucasus republics" (9, p. 308).
He has reiterated this position in a meeting on September, the 28th. B. Shahtakhtinski speech put an end to the disputes. Just after his speech, Kazim Karabekir Pasha retreated and told that he was unaware of the circumstances in the new South Caucasus after the signing of the Moscow Treaty. At the meeting on the September, 30th, agreement for treaty signing was reached. On October, the 13th, 1921 with the participation of the RSFSR, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia and Turkey signed the Kars Treaty, consisting of 20 articles and 3 annexes (4, p. 141).
The first article of the Treaty the parties cancel all previous treaties which were of non-equal rights. According to the second article, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia and Turkey were to reject the imposed the agreements, and could reject the documents that the National Assembly of Turkey did not accept. Three republics rejected of the Treaty of Sevres signed on the 10th August, 1920, considering it to be as a non-equal right the treaty. According to the third article, three republics rejected the occupation regime of Turkey and considered it incompatible with the human rights. The fourth article regulates the cross-border issues. According to the fifth article, the three South Caucasian republics and Turkey expressed their agreement that Nakhchivan stays as a part of Azerbaijan (10, pp. 67-69).
The sixth item says about Turkey should make concessions to Georgia, Batumi. Georgia had to create the autonomy. According to the seventh article, the customs rules were to be softened. According to the eighth article, summer and winter pastures should be used jointly by Turkey and Georgia. According to the ninth article, the parties considered important to develop the status of the Black Sea. According to the tenth article, parties accepted the obligation not to permit to groups and organizations to function on their territories if they function against others in their group. The eleventh article was devoted to family law and heritage. These issues should be resolved by special agreement. The twelfth article the parties take obligation to create favorable conditions for the citizens of other parties’ countries on their territory (11, pp. 123-124).
However, the legal parties didn’t spread it over citizens of their allies. According to thirteenth article, people living on former Russian territory by 1918, now Turkish one could by desire drop the Turkish citizenship, and leave freely Turkey, take his property or its equivalent. The fourteenth article declares that parties should sign the agreement on 1918-1920 years war refugees within six month period. According to the fifteenth article, the parties amnesty people who committed crime during war operations as soon as the treaty is concluded. According to the sixteenth article, after signing the treaty parties must free former military and civilian prisoners within two months. According to the seventeenth article, to maintain permanent relations between the two countries must ensure the railway, telegraph and other communications tools, unimpeded movement of people and goods. According to the eighteenth article, the parties must establish and regulate trade relations, economic, financial and other issues, in order to strengthen the friendly relations, right after signing the treaty the Commission of respective countries must be created in Tbilisi. According to the nineteenth article, after the treaty signature within three months parties must conclude of the consular conventions. According to the twentieth article, the treaty must be ratified. Exchange of ratified documents had to be done in Yerevan. Articles 6, 14, 15, 16, 18 and 19 of the Treaty must not be ratified, but becomes effective immediately (11, pp. 146-149).
Five copies of the contract were drawn up. Signing of Treaty was of great importance to the parties. For Turkish diplomacy: Turkey got the support of Russia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia against imposed the Sevres Treaty; showed to the world and especially to the Entente countries the failure of the Treaty of Sevres; one of the greatest of the twentieth century was that the Turks destructed the provisions of the Versailles peace system related to them; regulated their relations with three South Caucasus republics, in particular with Armenia; established good- neighborly and business relations on legal and political basis for further development; ensure the safety of its borders with the South Caucasian republics (12, pp. 27-28).
As for Russian diplomacy playing the role of mediator in the conference: though the Bolshevik government was not recognized, but Russian diplomacy in achieving their political goals received newly support from Turkey; took serious steps to unite the country out of South Caucasus republics; provide security on the border with Turkey; got an impact on the South Caucasus and established dominance; put attempts to confront the Three republics against Turkey (4, pp. 142-143).
As for Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia diplomacy: solved territorial issues of these republics with Turkey; basis for good-neighborly relations with Turkey was established; though externally three republics seemed that signing the treaty was manifestation of independent foreign policy, but in fact Russia was the instructor and the major player at the Conference (12, pp. 34-35).
Turkish Grand National Assembly approved the treaty of Kars with172 votes on March, the 17th, 1922. The Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee approved the Treaty of Kars unanimously at its third session on March, the 3rd, 1922. On March, the 20th, Armenian, and on June, the 14th Georgian Central Executive Committee approved the Treaty. Approved Treaty copies were exchanged in Yerevan on September 11, 1922, and the Kars Treaty entered into force on the same day. After the signing of the Treaty of Kars, the South Caucasus - Turkey Conference was held. This conference was devoted to the implementation of the articles of the Treaty of Kars began its work in Tbilisi, Georgia on February, the 15th, 1922. From April 15 to July 9, the three South Caucasian countries, Russia and Turkey signed the following conventions: Convention on Consular, Annex to Consular Convention, the Convention on legal assistance; Post and Telegraph Convention, Convention on Rail operation (4, p. 144).
Our countries (ADR, and the Ottoman Empire) had political, economic and diplomatic relations in the years 1918 and 1920. At the time the Ottoman Empire prevented of ethnic cleansing carried out the Bolshevik-Dashnak forces and was defeated in World War I as a party and its allies in the Entente states broken by this time, it was in need of support (13, p. 82).
After the country was divided into pieces by the Entente and its allies Ottoman sultan accepted their unconditional administration, Mustafa Kemal Pasha using a military and political skill, gathering patriotic people around a single leader against the armies of the Entente forces along the all fronts, created the turning point in this fight and that pitched by victories. Thus, to support the maximum mobilized military and political capacity and to win the fight for the patriot forces led by Mustafa Kemal Pasha, were encouraged by the Turkish Grand National Assembly (Parliament), who raised the question of both political and military assistance in the agenda (12, p. 14).
Thus, on April, the 26th, 1920, the Great National Parliament sent a letter to Soviet Russia. After appreciating of anti - imperialist struggle of Soviet Russia and that Turkey was in the same line, there was an request to recognize the anti - imperialist forces and the only representative - the Turkish people, and they were asked to provide military assistance. Soviet Russia accepted positively the Parliament’s request and showed necessary support. Were ambassadors sent to Russia and Azerbaijan, neither Russia, nor Azerbaijan didn’t hurry to send their ambassadors to Ankara. Only after all of the South Caucasus republics established Soviet power and after the signing of the Treaty of Friendship between Russia and Turkey in Moscow on March, the 16th, 1921, Azerbaijan decided to open diplomatic representation in Turkey. Since Soviet Russia and Azerbaijan represented the same political and ideological front, the Ambassador to Turkey to be appointed had to be informed to Lenin, and Ibrahim Abilov was appointed to this position. Ibrahim Abilov presented his credentials to the Chairman of the Parliament and the Supreme Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha on October 15, 1921. Diplomatic representation since that day up to the death of Ibrahim Abilov on February 23, 1923, operated in Turkey. After the death of I. Abilov Azerbaijan Ambassador to Turkey was not appointed, and this function was given to the representative of the central government as Azerbaijan was a part of the USSR (12, pp. 15-16).
However, after a period of Ataturk, Russia (the USSR) in relations with Turkey didn’t give up to carry out and impose its policy in this country. Coldness in relations of Turkey and Russia and in general in the relations with the USSR, after Ataturk the leaders of Turkey turned to European ( capitalist ) countries, failures in the Second World War and the subsequent failure of the USSR in the ideological field was replaced by its territorial claims to Turkey. But Turkey's political and diplomatic agility saved it from expected troubles. Since Turkey became a NATO member, then the most obvious indicator of interfering into Turkey's internal affairs, as well as in other countries, they started rendering financial aid Turkey, the left-wing (communist) movements and parties, and drew changes of regime in the country. It was the failure of intentions. Most importantly, because of the state established on national values, "the peace in the country, the peace in soul" was core principle that placed the internal and foreign policy of a nation was completely alien to him, and they refused to point (12, pp. 20-21).
Although it is difficult to touch on all aspects of the history, speaking on Azerbaijan - Turkey's economic relations with the modern stage, we certainly should consider the situation during the Soviet period. As it is clear from the historical sources on the Soviet period, though Azerbaijan was not a subject of international law, but it was involved in the international relations by means of the central government. The USSR government did not allow Azerbaijan to have direct political and trade-economic relations with foreign countries. According to the first decades of the post-war time Azerbaijan was allowed to keep cultural relations with foreign countries. However, this relationship was carried out under the strict control of Moscow. Political relations were held with communist and socialist parties of the socialist and developing countries (14, p. 17).
In 1946 - 1990 the Republic of Azerbaijan being a member of the Soviet Union, participated in the international inter- cultural relations. In 1946 - 1990 in the Soviet Union, one of the Soviet republics - Azerbaijan had the legal and political basis for the implementation of international cultural relations with foreign countries; the Soviet Union signed treaties, agreements and protocols. The USSR signed in 70s - 80s a lot of documents on cultural relations with Turkey and other countries (4, p.461). These documents determined forms and principles of the implementation of the cultural relations. Cultural cooperation in 1946 - 1990 for the Soviet Union became one of the objects discussed within relations with foreign countries. Problems of multilateral international cultural relations were reflected in the final documents of the meetings including the issues of security and cooperation in Europe, Helsinki (1975), Madrid (1983), Vienna (1989) and Paris (1990). The new forms and importance of inter-state cultural relations were identified in those documents (13, p. 88).
Researchers this period of international cultural relations of Azerbaijan Republic divide into the following stages: since 1946 to mid 50s, from mid 50s till the 70s, from mid 70s to, from mid 80s to 1991. Cultural relationship was weaker in the first stage and Azerbaijan’s activity under the central government's administrative-command was completely restricted. Near the end of the war, in 1944 PCIA of Azerbaijan SSR was restored, and in 1946 got the name of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. However, the ministry remained as protocol department being under the control of the center. At this stage, the Society for Cultural Relations with Iran was created in accordance with cultural ties of Azerbaijan. The political condition of that time had a negative impact on of the cultural relationships (4, p. 462).
Since mid 50s the geography and cultural ties to Europe, Asia and America expanded and covered a number of countries. Great changes took place in the world and in the country at this stage. These changes have created favorable conditions for the expansion of the international economic and cultural ties. 70s till mid of 80s, the situation radically differed from the previous stages in terms of quality (15, pp. 87-88).
In January 1990, a protocol on cultural and scientific cooperation between the Republic of Azerbaijan and Turkey was signed. The ways and forms expanding cultural cooperation between the two republics were defined in the protocol. At this stage policy of the so-called perestroika in the country led to the expansion of the political rights of the republics. International economic and cultural relations were carried out by 30 ministries, agencies, organizations, societies and so on. Among them the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Culture, the Society of Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign countries were especially active (16, p. 83).
Restoration of independence by Azerbaijan created favorable conditions for the participation in contemporary international relations. In this situation, taking into account the people’s national interests and the realities of the modern world, Azerbaijan Republic began to pursue an active foreign policy (17, pp. 163-164).
Fraternal Turkey takes a special place in the international relations after regain of independence. Since 1990, Scientific-technical and cultural cooperation Azerbaijan between Turkey were in the center of attention. Protocol on cultural and scientific-technical exchange for years 1990-1992 was signed on January, the 10th, 1990, and during visit of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan to Turkey an agreement on scientific-technical and cultural relations between the two countries was signed (18, pp. 42-43).
Turkey was the first state to recognize state independence of Azerbaijan on November, 9, 1991. First years of independence began to be realized as soon as these documents are signed. Baku - Istanbul airline has been built; cooperation in hotel business was created; Turkey TV programs started to appear in Azerbaijan; offices of the "Zaman" and "Milliyet" newspaper were opened. Scientific co-operation between Turkey and Azerbaijan through National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Baku State University has its specific role (19, p. 187).
Education and health ministries of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Turkey's cooperation with relevant ministries, students, graduate students and staff exchange expanded. Relationship was established between the Azerbaijani and Turkish women's organizations. And Istanbul, specialized in the basis of mutual agreement, "Turkic world" and "the World" book store opened. Artists, exchange of singers and folk groups, carpets and works of artists, exhibitions, film festivals and tourist ties was successfully expanded. There was a great revival of bilateral economic relations, trade relations began to develop rapidly.
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Resource: West East Journal of Social Sciences-August 2013,Volume 2, Number 2
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