The Religion-Politics Relationship in Islamic Thought

While Greek thinkers were discussing political problems, the city-state surrounded the entire community life from politics to economy and from faith to education was standing in front of them. However the Sharia laws and the Islamic state were standing in front of classical Islamic thinkers. Hence, it was unthinkable that thinkers living in the Islamic world would move from purely rational premises while presenting their political arguments. Often they were beginning to political debates with acceptance a direct divine order, both in terms of their beliefs and the concern of legitimizing philosophy. Then they were flurrying to prove the righteousness of Sharia laws. They could not had exceeded a sense of politics stuck in Sharia. In order to exceed this vicious circle, either religion would had been excluded by a secular manner (however at that time it was neither possible nor desirable) or religion and politics would had been considered as different phenomenon (as Ibn Khaldun did in the late 13th century), by means of this the door would had been opened to new political theories. Every types of trials were required for reconsideration the institutions of religion and politics intertwined in the Islamic world. However, philosophy, which is a common foundation of both religious and political institutions, could not had been considered independently of this attempt.

By nature of philosophy, any thinker who was trying to philosophizing in the Islamic world had to first understand and conceptualize the field of culture and values s/he was in, and then to settle the fact of politics by the way of legitimize her/his own activity. If it is thought that the dominant problem of the time is to resolve the conflict between "reason" and "revelation", it is better understood that philosophy has entered into the Islamic world, where religion presents itself as politics, in the guidage of politics.

Religion, Politics, Philosophy, Islamic World, Reason, Revelation

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